Diabetes Mellitus

Type l diabetes, Type 2 diabetes, Young onset diabetes, Gestational diabetes, Screening for Diabetes Complications

High Risk Groups

Types of diabetes


Lack exercise


Family history



Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and young adults, and was previously known as juvenile diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, the body does not produce enough insulin. Type 1 diabetes is treated by insulin injections. In Hong Kong, approximately 3% of the diabetic population has Type 1 disease.


Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. In Hong Kong, around 97% of the diabetic population has type 2 diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, either the body does not produce enough insulin or insulin cannot function properly due to resistance of body cells to insulin actions. Insulin is necessary for the body to use glucose effectively. It enables glucose to enter from the blood into the cells for energy production or storage. When glucose builds up in the blood stream instead of entering the cells, due to either insufficient insulin action or inadequate insulin secretion, high blood glucose levels will then follow.

Diabetes is a chronic disease that can lead to serious complications, such as cardiovascular and kidney diseases.  High blood glucose on a long-term basis can destroy blood vessels which are essential, not only for the delivery of nutrients to peripheral organs, but also the removal of waste products from them.

Common Symptoms

  • Tiredness

  • Frequent urination

  • Thirst

  • Blurred vision

  • Feeling of hunger

  • Unexplained weight loss (especially if previously overweight/obese)

  • Delay in wound healing

  • Frequent urinary tract or fungal infections